Introduction to Aerospace Structures and Materials

Authors

René Alderliesten
Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1882-5396
Keywords: aerospace structures, aerospace materials, aerospace manufacturing, material physics, aircraft structures

Synopsis

This book provides an introduction to the discipline of aerospace structures and materials. It is the first book to date that includes all relevant aspects of this discipline within a single monologue. These aspects range from materials, manufacturing and processing techniques, to structures, design principles and structural performance, including aspects like durability and safety. With the purpose of introducing students into the basics of the entire discipline, the book presents the subjects broadly and loosely connected, adopting either a formal description or an informal walk around type of presentation. A key lessons conveyed within this book is the interplay between the exact science and engineering topics, like solid material physics and structural analysis, and the soft topics that are not easily captured by equations and formulas. Safety, manufacturability, availability and costing are some of these topics that are presented in this book to explain decisions and design solutions within this discipline.

 

Author Biography

René Alderliesten, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering

Dr.Alderliesten obtained his MSc and PhD degree both at TU Delft, and holds since 2012 the position of associated professor within the department of Aerospace Structures and Materials at the faculty of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft. His expertise is fatigue and damage tolerance of metals, composites and hybrid materials, with the emphasis on proper understanding the physics of damage growth. Dr. Alderliesten introduces Aerospace Structures & Materials in the first semester of the BSc curriculum, while teaching Fatigue of Structures & Materials in the first semester of the MSc both at TU Delft and at the University di Bologna.

References

Chapter 1

Illustrations

Laurensvanlieshout, (2017). Charpy V-notch test.jpg. Retrieved from:

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bestand:Charpy_V-notch_test.svg, CC-BY-SA 4.0.

NASA, (2003). 86415main_ED03-0180-01_sm.jpg. Retrieved from:

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/ResearchUpdate/Helios/Previews/

index.html, Public Domain.

NASA, (2003). 86415main_ED03-0180-02_sm.jpg.Retrieved from:

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/ResearchUpdate/Helios/Previews/

index.html, Public Domain.

NASA, (2003). 86415main_ED03-0180-03_sm.jpg.Retrieved from:

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/ResearchUpdate/Helios/Previews/

index.html, Public Domain.

Otrębski, Andrzej (2013). Proba udarnosci probki 02.jpg. Retrieved from:

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Proba_udarnosci_probki_02.jpg. CC-BY-SA

0.

Chapter 2

Literature

Rice, R.R, Jackson, J.L., Bakuckas, J., and Thompson, S. (2003). Metallic Materials

Properties Development and Standardization (Technical report MMPDS-01). U.S.

Department of Transportation. Retrieved from: https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/dashboard/

searchResults/titleDetail/PB2003106632.xhtml.

Cohen, A. (2010, May 17). Boeing fixing 787 design flaw – Boeing and Aerospace

News [Blog post]. Retrieved from: http://blog.seattlepi.com/aerospace/archives/

asp.

Illustrations

Anon., (2006). glass-1449943_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/

glass-fire-heat-chemistry-1449943/. CC0.

Asher, Troy – NASA (2014). c-20a_de-iced_iceland_01-31-14.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/Features/icelandic_glaciers_study.html.

Public domain.

Britton, Steele C.G. – Senior Airman US Airforce, (2010). 100716-F-7087B-031.jpg.

Retrieved from http://www.littlerock.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/357068/

fuels-tank-tigers-maintain-the-flow/. Public domain.

Brygg, Simon – Ostersund Photography, (2009). D-AXLG@AJR (3346177101).jpg.

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DAXLG_@_

AJR_(3346177101).jpg. CC-BY 2.0.

Dahl, Jeff (2007). Jet engine.svg. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

File:Jet_engine.svg. CC-BY-SA 4.0.

Deaton, NASA/MSFC, Fred (2013). 0FD8664_400x599.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/about/star/star131218.html. Public domain.

Hans, (2012). mountain-bike-23134_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/nl/

mountainbike-fiets-sneeuwde-23134/. CC0.

Jetstar Airways, (2013). Jetstar’s first 787 on the production line (9132370198).jpg.

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Jetstar%27s_first_787_on_the_production_line_(9132370198).jpg. CC-BY-SA 2.0.

Koul, Anirudh (2008). 2527466246_d8b7c5a75b_z.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.flickr.com/photos/anirudhkoul/2527466246. CC-BY-NC 2.0.

Landis, Tony – NASA (2009). 386210main_ED09-0253-15_full.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1469.html. Public

Domain.

NASA, (2006). 146600main_sts1anniv-AC76-1713.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/images/content/146600main_sts1anniv-

AC76-1713.jpg. Public Domain.

NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, (2011). cnofs-orig.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/lightning-waves.html. Public

Domain.

NTSB, (2010). Center Wing Fuel Tank.png. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Center_Wing_Fuel_Tank.png. Public

Domain.

OU Department of Materials Engineering, (2004). ccf4.jpg. Retrieved from

http://pardo.net/bike/pic/fail-009/000.html. Copyright OU.

SAC Stier, James (2009). 800px-

Merlin_Helicopter_in_Californian_Desert_During_Ex_Merlin_Vortex_MOD_45150792.j

pg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Merlin_Helicopter_in_Californian_Desert_During_Ex_Merlin_Vortex_MOD_451507

jpg. Open Government Licence.

Schida, Tom – NASA, (2005). 274858main_EC05-0166-21_full_full.jpg. Retrieved

from https://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/multimedia/imagegallery/Shuttle/

EC05-0166-21.html. Public Domain.

Skeeze, (2008). helocasting-704447_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/nl/

helocasting-helikopter-water-704447/, CC0.

U.S. GPO, (1943). TankerSchenectady.jpg. Retrieved from https://nl.wikipedia.org/

wiki/Bestand:TankerSchenectady.jpg. Public Domain.

Wollman, Gina K. – Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class U.S. Navy, (2010).

US_Navy_100612-N-3595W-004_Sailors_assigned_to_the_Patriots_of_Electronic_Att

ack_Squadron_(VAQ)_140,_clean_an_EA-6B_Prowler_on_the_flight_deck_of_the_aircr

aft_carrier_USS_Dwight_D._Eisenhower_(CVN_69).jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:US_Navy_100612-N-3595W-004_Sailors_assigned_to_the_Patriots_of_Electronic_

Attack_Squadron_(VAQ)_140,_clean_an_EA-6B_Prowler_on_the_flight_deck_of_the_air

craft_carrier_USS_Dwight_D._Eisenhower_(CVN_69).jpg. Public Domain.

Chapter 3

Literature

Vlot, A., & Gunnink, J. W. (2001). Fibre Metal Laminates: An Introduction. Dordrecht:

Springer The Netherlands.

Illustrations

Atkeison, Charles, (2003). shuttlenExplorer starboard nose side 2003.jpg. Retrieved

from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Shuttle_Explorer_starboard_nose_side_2003.jpg#mw-jump-to-license. CC-BYSA2.0.

Anon.,(2017).

wc_bathroom_toilet_ceramics_hygiene_discharge_vater_process-1059556.jpg!d.jpg.

Retrieved from https://pxhere.com/en/photo/1059556. CC0.

Bender, Ben, (2014). Kop van Zuid, Rotterdam, Netherlands – panoramio (12).jpg.

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Kop_van_Zuid,_Rotterdam,_Netherlands_-_panoramio_(12).jpg?uselang=nl. CCBY-

SA 3.0.

Boffoli, CJ, (2018). 787fuselage.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:787fuselage.jpg. Public domain.

Cjp24, (2009). Glass reinforcements.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glass_reinforcements.jpg#/media/

File:Glass_reinforcements.jpg. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Gnokii, (2011). Tennis-rack.svg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Tennis-rack.svg. CC0.

GuentherDilingen, (2012). air-sports-2199683_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/en/air-sports-motorsegler-pilot-2199683/. CC0.

Hans, (2013). dustbin-95181_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/get/

e030b00729e9002ad25a5840981318c3fe76e7d71bb9154094f2c4/

dustbin-95181_1920.jpg. CC0.

KarinKarin, (2015). ice-684741_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/

ice-train-railway-express-train-684741/. Public Domain.

Medienluemmel, (2016). performance-3120640_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/en/performance-turbine-wind-3120640/. CC0.

NASA, (2003a). CAIB_highres_full.pdf:figure3-1-1. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2003b). CAIB_highres_full.pdfFigure2-3-2.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2003c). CAIB_highres_full.pdfFigure2-6-1. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2003d). CAIB_highres_full.pdfFigure 3-8-9. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2003e). CAIB_highres_full.pdfFigure3-8-5. Retrieved from

https://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/CAIB_Vol1.html. Public Domain.

NASA-STS-118 crew, (2007).

Damaged_TPS_Tiles_of_Endeavour_(NASA_S118-E-06229).jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Damaged_TPS_Tiles_of_Endeavour_(NASA_S118-E-06229).jpg. Public Domain.

NI-CO-LE, (2017). plant-production-2335621_1920.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/get/

eb36b20a2ef6003ed1534705fb0938c9bd22ffd41cb3134996f9c47aa2/plantproduction-

_1920.jpg?attachment. CC0.

Pexels, (2016). pile-1868894_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/

pile-rubber-stacked-tires-1868894/. CC0.

Pingstone, Adrian, (2004). American.airlines.b777.arp.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:American.airlines.b777.arp.jpg. Public

Domain.

PMullahaa, (2015). NIJ_LVLIIIA_Kogelvrij_vest,_BA8001.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37956474. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Torr68, (2005). 1280px-GF-04_b.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:GF-04_b.JPG#/media/File:GF-04_b.JPG. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Vinayr16, (2014). tire-2645692_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/

tire-tread-new-wheel-rubber-car-2645692/. CC0.

Volk, Willy, (2008). 2536399954_61b8770f95_z.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.flickr.com/photos/volk/2536399954. CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Yogipurnama, (2017). lego-2200009_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/en/lego-toys-kids-aircraft-helicopter-2200009/, CC0.

Chapter 4

Illustrations

Arnd, Florian, (2005). Strangziehverfahren.png. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Strangziehverfahren.png. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

CM_Foto, (2016). cylinder-1369348_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/en/cylinder-engine-block-motor-1369348/. CC0.

Contest Group, (2016). 4-10-a.jpg. Retrieved from www.contestyachts.com. Copyright

by Contest Group. Used with permission.

Esi.us1, (2010). Enrollado-de-filamentos_1.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Enrollado-de-filamentos_1.jpg. Public

Domain.

Gdipasquale1, (2018). Filam.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:Filam.jpg. CC-BY-SA 4.0.

Knechtel – Donald, C. – Airman 1st Class U.S. Airforce, (2017). 170222-FSE307-

JPG. Retrieved from https://www.afgsc.af.mil/News/Photos/igphoto/

/. Public Domain.

Lightweight Structures BV, (2006). 4-10-b.jpg. Retrieved from http://www.lightweightstructures.

com/. Copyright by Lightweight Structures BV. Used with permission.

Lightweight Structures BV, (2006). 4-10-c.jpg. Retrieved from http://www.lightweightstructures.

com/. Copyright by Lightweight Structures BV. Used with permission.

MarPockStudios, (2017). crucible-2109202_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from

https://pixabay.com/en/crucible-foundry-molten-bronze-2109202/. CC0.

Chapter 5

Literature

Rawal, S. (January 01, 2001). Metal-Matrix Composites for Space Applications. JOM

Warrendale-, 53, 14-17.

Wertz, J. R., & Larson, W. J. (1999). Space mission analysis and design. Torrance,

Calif: Microcosm Press/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

Illustrations

Altoing, (2011), Su25-kompo-vers2.svg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Su25-kompo-vers2.svg. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Anon., (n.d.), 13_53_1.jpg.Retrieved from http://www.tpub.com/air/13-42.htm via

AVIATION STRUCTURAL MECHANIC E1 & C. Public Domain.

Anon., (n.d.), 5-1.jpg. Retrieved from Lecture Notes TU Delft, AE1102 Introduction into

Aerospace Structures and Materials, Alderliesten, 2011 (hardcopy). Public Domain.

Anon., (n.d.), 5-27-b.jpg. Retrieved from Lecture Notes TU Delft, AE1102 Introduction

into Aerospace Structures and Materials, Alderliesten, 2011 (hardcopy). Public

domain.

Anon., (n.d.), 5-36-c.jpg.Retrieved from Lecture Notes TU Delft, AE1102 Introduction

into Aerospace Structures and Materials, Alderliesten, 2011 (hardcopy). Public

Domain.

Bidini, Aldo, (2012), Dassault-Breguet_Atlantique_2,_France_-_Navy_JP7415097.jpg.

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dassault-

Breguet_Atlantique_2,_France_-_Navy_JP7415097.jpg. Public Domain.

Dr Brains, (2013), Airbus Lagardère P45 -Wing equipping (MSN120) (1).JPG.Retrieved

from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Airbus_Lagard%C3%A8re_P45_-

Wing_equipping_(MSN120)_(1).JPG. CC0.

ESA, (2012), MSG-3_In_the_cleanroom_node_full_image_2. Retrieved from

https://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2012/03/MSG-3_In_the_cleanroom.

Copyright ESA.

ESA, (2002), 5-38-a.jpg.Retrieved from https://esa.int. Copyright ESA.

ESA, (n.d.), 5-38-b.jpg.Retrieved from https://esa.int. Copyright ESA.

ESA, (2002),

De_verschillende_instrumenten_aan_boord_van_Envisat_node_full_image_2.

Retrieved from http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2002/07/

De_verschillende_instrumenten_aan_boord_van_Envisat. Copyright ESA.

Kolossos, (2006), Fuselage-747.jpg.Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:Fuselage-747.jpg?uselang=en. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Le Floc’h – ESA, Anneke, (2002),

Envisat_Structural_Model_on_the_HYDRA_Shaker_in_the_ESTEC_Tests_Centre_Fl001

_node_full_image_2.jpg. Retrieved from https://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/

/11/

Envisat_Structural_Model_on_the_HYDRA_Shaker_in_the_ESTEC_Tests_Centre_Fl001

. Copyright ESA.

NASA, (2000), boeing16.jpg. Retrieved from https://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/

rockettour.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2001), fig1-sm.jpg. Retrieved from https://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/

/Rawal-0104.html. Public Domain.

NASA, (2007), 221640main_EDC_Spacecraft_Structures.pdf:Figure 6.3. Retrieved

from https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/221640main_EDC_Spacecraft_Structures.pdf. Public

Domain.

NASA, (2007), 221640main_EDC_Spacecraft_Structures.pdf:Figure 6.4. Retrieved

from https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/221640main_EDC_Spacecraft_Structures.pdf. Public

Domain.

NASA, (2010), 20100005273.pdf. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/

casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100005273.pdf. Public Domain.

NASA, (n.d.), Second_Stage.pdf. Retrieved from https://history.msfc.nasa.gov/

saturn_apollo/documents/Second_Stage.pdf. Public Domain.

NASA, (n.d.), p197.jpg. Retrieved from https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4206/p197.htm.

Public Domain.

NASA, (n.d.), 5-37-a.jpg. Retrieved from https://nasa.gov. Public Domain.

NASA, (n.d.), 5-37-b.jpg. Retrieved from https://nasa.gov. Public Domain.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada, (2007), a05f0047.pdf:Photo 3. Retrieved from

http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/2005/a05f0047/a05f0047.pdf.

Copyright TSB.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada, (2007), a05f0047.pdf: Figure 4. Retrieved

from http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/2005/a05f0047/

a05f0047.pdf. Copyright TSB.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada, (2007), a05f0047.pdf:Photo 3. Retrieved from

http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/2005/a05f0047/a05f0047.pdf.

Copyright TSB.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada, (2007), 5-14-f.jpg. Retrieved from

http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/2005/a05f0047/a05f0047.pdf.

Copyright TSB.

Sapp – U.S. Air Force, Sue, (2007), 071130-F-5350S-205.JPG .Retrieved from

http://www.af.mil/News/Photos/igphoto/2000419184/. Public Domain.

Chapter 6

Illustrations

Ienac, (2006), A_380_meeting.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:A_380_meeting.jpg. Public Domain.

Lämpel, (2013), Airbus_A380_on_MAKS_2011_crop.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Airbus_A380_on_MAKS_2011_crop.jpg.

CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Mr_worker, (2014), airbus-2466266_960_720.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/

en/airbus-a380-frankfurt-start-flight-2466266/. Public Domain.

NASA, (2017), 6-17.jpg. Retrieved from https://NASA.gov. Public Domain.

NASA, (2000), KSC-00PD-1263.jpg.jpg. Retrieved from https://science.ksc.nasa.gov/

shuttle/missions/sts-106/images/high/KSC-00PD-1263.jpg. Public Domain.

NASA, (n.d.), 6-18-b.jpg. Retrieved from https://nasa.gov. Public Domain.

Noret, Phillipe – AirTeamimages, (2012), FGSPN.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FGSPN.jpg. CC-BY-SA 2.5.

Roddy, K. – UC Davis, (2007), buttress.jpeg. Retrieved from

http://medieval.ucdavis.edu/20B/buttress.jpeg.

Roddy, K. – UC Davis, (2007), choir.jpeg. Retrieved from http://medieval.ucdavis.edu/

B/choir.jpeg.

Sapp, Sue – U.S. Air Force, (2011), 110427-F-EL616-189.JPG. Retrieved from

http://www.robins.af.mil/News/Photos/igphoto/2000252075/. Public Domain.

Sapp, Sue – U.S. Air Force, (2006), 061115-F-2383G-109.jpeg. Retrieved from

http://www.afmc.af.mil/News/Photos/igphoto/2000534465/. Public Domain.

Chapter 8

Literature

Rice, R.R, Jackson, J.L., Bakuckas, J., and Thompson, S. (2003) Metallic Materials

Properties Development and Standardization (Technical report MMPDS-01). U.S.

Department of Transportation. Retrieved from: https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/dashboard/

searchResults/titleDetail/PB2003106632.xhtml

Wertz, J. R., & Larson, W. J. (1999). Space mission analysis and design. Torrance,

Calif: Microcosm Press/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

Illustrations

Cliff, (2008), 3348955799_907d31c689_o.jpg. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/

photos/nostri-imago/3348955799. CC-BY 2.0.

Fietstijden.nl, ( 2018), frame.jpg. Retrieved from https://www.fietstijden.nl/wielrennen/

onderdelen/frame. Public Domain.

Glory cycles, (2018), 24730908477_1804e4c2ec_o.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.flickr.com/photos/glorycycles/24730908477/in/photolist-

DFontK-22fABzY-DFompk-22fAAuS-23kbcuk-23kbc5n-DjqdeK-Y7fn1i-YjFcXz-

XgmMm5-YjFbQz-26ufLm6-26phCf3-26i55x4-Ja92Lh-25WFPXN-23PK4v4-25aiNgp-

adQrr-25addXF-259AhmM-255vXcY-Ft8inz-

GZqf3s-254ndH1-GZqeaW-23L154T-22n6zCo-23L14jM-22n6yVG-23L13oZ-23L12ue-

n6xNw-2432kGC-22bJhaj-23zzzpX-GNWJvW-

FhCatM-24WF5r6-FhC9H8-23RYEkq-23RYDVs-23RYDB1-23RYDmS-23RYD1w-23RY

CEw-23RYCmL-23RYBUy-23RWPb5-EDb9cn. CC-BY 2.0.

Kolossos, (2006), Fuselage-747.jpg, Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:Fuselage-747.jpg?uselang=en. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Saunders, Kevin G., (2008), 4635297991_1f275c6865_o.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.flickr.com/photos/kgsbikes/4635297991. CC-BY-NC-ND2.0.

steel-vintage.com, (2018), bianchi-specialissima-road-bicycle-frame-1.jpg. Retrieved

from https://www.steel-vintage.com/sold-bikes-and-parts/57/?limit=60, CC-BY.

Turner, Roland,

(2012), Ariane_5,_Musee_de_l%27Air_et_de_l%27Espace,_Le_Bourget,_Paris._(82089

.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Ariane_5,_Musee_de_l%27Air_et_de_l%27Espace,_Le_Bourget,_Paris._(82089755

.jpg. CC-BY-SA2.0.

Chapter 9

Literature

Beck, Laurie F, Dellinger, Ann M., O’Neil, Mary E. (2007, 15 July). Motor Vehicle Crash

Injury Rates by Mode of Travel, United States: Using Exposure-Based Methods to

Quantify Differences, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 166, Issue 2, Pages

–218, https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm064.

Ford, R. (2000, October) The Risks of Travel, Modern Railways, no. 10.

International Civil Aviation Organization. (2008). Annual reports of the Council.

Montreal: ICAO. Retrieved from: https://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/

_en.pdf#search=doc%209916.

Schijve, J. (2010). Fatigue of structures and materials. Dordrecht: Springer, The

Netherlands.

Illustrations

British Airways , (1952). CM1mk1galyp.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.fose1.plymouth.ac.uk/fatiguefracture/tutorials/FailureCases/images/

CM1mk1galyp.jpg. Public Domain.

Dtom, (2007). Wing_structure1.JPG. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:Wing_structure1.JPG#/media/File:Wing_structure1.JPG. Public Domain.

Fokker, (n.d.). 9-3.jpg. Retrieved from Lecture Notes TU Delft, AE1102 Introduction into

Aerospace Structures and Materials, Alderliesten, 2011 (hardcopy). Public Domain

Krelnik, (2009). Fuselage_of_de_Havilland_Comet_Airliner_G-ALYP.JPG. Retrieved

from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fuselage_of_de_Havilland_Comet_Airliner_GALYP.

JPG. CC-BY-SA 3.0.

Ministry of transport and civil aviation, (1954). G-ALYP.pdf:Figure 2. Retrieved from

https://www.baaa-acro.com/sites/default/files/import/uploads/2017/04/G-ALYP.pdf.

Public Domain.

National Transportation Safety Board, (1988), 9-7-a.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.ntsb.gov/Pages/default.aspx. Public Domain.

National Transportation Safety Board, (1988). AAR89-03.pdf:Figure2b. Retrieved from

https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/AAR8903.pdf. Public

Domain.

National Transportation Safety Board, (1988). 9-7-c.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.ntsb.gov/Pages/default.aspx. Public Domain

Ulbrich, Ken – NASA, (2014). :NASA’s_GIII_

flying_test_bed_aircraft_rests_on_three_pneumatic_lifting_devices_or_”airbags”_in_

preparation_for_loads_testing.jpg. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/

wiki/File:NASA’s_GIII_

flying_test_bed_aircraft_rests_on_three_pneumatic_lifting_devices_or_%22airbags

%22_in_preparation_for_loads_testing.jpg#/media/File:NASA’s_GIII_

flying_test_bed_aircraft_rests_on_three_pneumatic_lifting_devices_or_”airbags”_in_

preparation_for_loads_testing.jpg. Public Domain.

Wikipedia , (2004). 9-1.jpg. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Aviation_safety. CC-BY-SA3.0.

Wizard191, (2010). ensile_specimen-round_and_flat.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tensile_specimen-round_and_flat.jpg. CCBY-

SA3.0.

Yapparina, ( 2014). Crack_in_a_finite_plate_under_uniform_uniaxial_stress.png.

Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/

File:Crack_in_a_finite_plate_under_uniform_uniaxial_stress.png. CC-BY-SA3.0.

Chapter 10

Literature

Pilkey, W. (1997). Peterson`s stress concentration factors. Second edition. John Wiley

& Sons, Canada.

Schijve, J. (2010). Fatigue of structures and materials. Dordrecht: Springer, The

Netherlands.

Illustrations

Anon., (n.d.). rankine.jpg. Retrieved from: http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/

R/Rankine.html. Public Domain.

Antiproton, (2017). grains-2163690_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/

grains-metal-alloy-microscope-2163690/. CC0.

Carnevale, Paola, (2014). PaolaCarnevale.thesis.pdf. Retrieved from

https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A880605ea-fb4c-4b9b-a25ead610d94a5cd.

Copyright Carnevale. Used with Permission.

Glynn, Joseph, (1844). Tender_fatigued_axle.JPG. Retrieved from

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tender_fatigued_axle.JPG . Public Domain.

MT Aerospace AG, (2006). CVIpullout.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CVIpullout.jpg. CC-BY-SA3.0.

Plymouth Electron Microscopy Centre (PEMC), (n.d.). 10-16-c.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.fose1.plymouth.ac.uk/sme/MATS347/MATS347A4%20fracture.htm .

Copyright PEMC. Used with Permission.

Plymouth Electron Microscopy Centre (PEMC), (n.d.). 10-16-d.jpg. Retrieved from

https://www.fose1.plymouth.ac.uk/sme/MATS347/MATS347A4%20fracture.htm .

Copyright PEMC. Used with Permission.

Unknown Artist, (1842). Meudon_1842.jpg. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meudon_1842.jpg. Public Domain.

Unknown Artist, (1842). 10-9-a.jpg. Retrieved from Lecture Notes TU Delft, AE1102

Introduction into Aerospace Structures and Materials, Alderliesten, 2011 (hardcopy).

Public Domain.

Chapter 11

Illustrations

Alexas_Fotos, (2016). screw-1711469_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/

en/screw-nuts-hex-bolt-1711469/. Public Domain.

Cdang, (2010). Percages_et_vis.JPG. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Percages_et_vis.JPG. Public Domain.

InspiredImages, (2015). metal-950169_1920.jpg. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/

nl/metaal-nagels-staal-metalen-950169/. CC0

Schijve, J. (2010). 11-12.jpg. Retrieved from Schijve, J. (2010). Fatigue of structures

and materials. Dordrecht: Springer, The Netherlands (hardcopy). Copyright Schijve.

Used with permission.

Published

December 12, 2018

Details about the available publication format: Download PDF

ISBN-13 (15)

978-94-6366-075-4

Date of first publication (11)

2018-11-29

Publication date (01)

2018-12-12